C is a widely used programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in C is favored for system programming as its programs execute quickly and are able to handle low-level tasks. The language itself has been written in assembly language. We assume that you are familiar with the basics of programming. In the C language, a string is the type used to store any text including alphanumeric and special characters. The operations possible on strings include- calculating the string length, concatenation of strings, comparison of strings and so on.

To learn more about strings in C, take this course on C programming. Many times in C programs, expressions contain variables and constants of different data types. When you convert one data type into another, the method is termed type conversion. This is a simple way to convert an integer to a character type. It is not possible to assign the value of variable b to variable a as they are of different data types. So, we typecast integer b to character in this example.

Now, both a and b are of character data type. Sometimes, a number is input as a string. To use it for any mathematical operation, we have to convert the string to integer. There are two ways to do this. Numbers are stored in character format within the string.

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Initially, in this program, we include the two header files stdio. This is done in order to use the functions present in this two header files. The C programming language does not have its own functions. The main function is used to execute the C program. Hence, it is mandatory to have it in every C program.

The program code is written within the curly braces of the main function.

string array in c

Variables i, len and result are declared as of integer data type. The result variable is initialized to zero. In this case, the string is an array of characters pointed to by num.

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Then, we calculate the length of the string using the strlen function. Next, we loop through the string and convert the string into decimal value. Finally, the string is converted into an integer and printed on the screen.

You can learn how to write your own C programs with this course. The syntax of this function is as follows. Here, str is of type pointer to a character. The const keyword is used to make variables non-modifiable. This function returns an integer value after execution. The atoi function is present in the stdlib.The C programming language lacks a string variable, but it does have the char array, which is effectively the same thing.

As an array, a string in C can be completely twisted, torqued, and abused by using pointers. Strings, too, can be displayed one character a time by plodding through an array. The code shown in Hello, String is completely legitimate C code, valid to create a program that displays a string. Exercise 1: Modify the source code from Hello, String, replacing array notation with pointer notation.

Eliminate the index variable. You need to create and initialize a pointer variable. The null character evaluates as false. So the evaluation could be rewritten as. Exercise 3: Continue working on your code, and this time eliminate the statements in the while loop. Consider A Pointer Announces a String. You cannot use this convention to initialize a numeric array.

Build and run. For example, in A Pointer Announces a String, the sample variable is used in Line 7 to step through the string as part of the putchar function.

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If you wantto use sample later in the code, it would no longer reference the start of the string. Taking what you know about sorting in the C language, you can probably craft a decent string-sorting program. No, instead, you sort an array of pointers referencing the strings. Sorting Strings, Initial Attempt shows an example.

C Strings (Arrays vs. Pointers)

Build and run to ensure that the strings are properly sorted. The problem is in Line You can compare individual characters and you could then sort the list based on those characters, but most humans prefer words sorted across their entire length, not just the first character.

Exercise 7 : Modify your source code, and use the strcmp function to compare strings to determine whether they need to be swapped. Dan Gookin wrote the original For Dummies book in Now, with more than 11 million copies in print, his many books have been translated into 32 languages.

Visit him at wambooli.Arrays in C act to store related data under a single variable name with an index, also known as a subscript. It is easiest to think of an array as simply a list or ordered grouping for variables of the same type. As such, arrays often help a programmer organize collections of data efficiently and intuitively.

Later we will consider the concept of a pointerfundamental to C, which extends the nature of the array array can be termed as a constant pointer.

C Programming/Arrays and strings

For now, we will consider just their declaration and their use. You can also initialize as you declare.

Just put the initial elements in curly brackets separated by commas as the initial value:. For example, if we want to initialize an array with six integers, with 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 as the initial values:. Though when the array is initialized as in this case, the array dimension may be omitted, and the array will be automatically sized to hold the initial data:.

This is very useful in that the size of the array can be controlled by simply adding or removing initializer elements from the definition without the need to adjust the dimension.

If the dimension is specified, but not all elements in the array are initialized, the remaining elements will contain a value of 0. This is very useful, especially when we have very large arrays. If we want to access a variable stored in an array, for example with the above declaration, the following code will store a 1 in the variable x. Arrays in C are indexed starting at 0, as opposed to starting at 1. The first element of the array above is point[0].

The index to the last value in the array is the array size minus one. In the example above the subscripts run from 0 through 5.

C# Array Examples, String Arrays

C does not guarantee bounds checking on array accesses. The compiler may not complain about the following though the best compilers do :. During program execution, an out of bounds array access does not always cause a run time error.In this lesson we'll learn how to split a string into several tokens using strtok function. To split a string we need delimiters - delimiters are characters which will be used to split the string.

Suppose, we've the following string and we want to extract the individual words. In this case there is only one delimiter. So the first time it is called, it will point to the first word. But there is another thing. So after the first call to strtokthe strptr and next token position looks like as follows:. In the next call to strtokthe first parameter needs to be NULL so that strtok starts splitting the string from the next token's starting position it remembers.

This can be utilized to know when to stop calling strtok. Putting it all together in complete example below. Warning: Because strtok modifies original string, character pointer to read-only string shouldn't be passed to strtok.

The following examples will trigger undefined behaviour because the first parameter to strtok is read-only string:. If you don't want the original string to be modified, create a copy of the original string using strcpy and pass that copy to strtok.

The delimiter doesn't have to be a single character. It can contain multiple characters and splitting will be performed for any of the characters. Following is another example with multiple delimiters:. Employers: discover CodinGame for tech hiring. Log In Sign Up. Create your playground on Tech. This playground was created on Tech.

Suggested playgrounds. How to play with pointers in C. Demo Paper. Les variables. Join the CodinGame community on Discord to chat about puzzle contributions, challenges, streams, blog articles - all that good stuff! Online Participants. Keyboard Shortcuts:?For example:. Here, we have declared a string of 5 characters. This is bad and you should never do this. Arrays and strings are second-class citizens in C; they do not support the assignment operator once it is declared.

For example. Note: Use the strcpy function to copy the string instead. The scanf function reads the sequence of characters until it encounters whitespace space, newline, tab, etc.

Even though Dennis Ritchie was entered in the above program, only "Dennis" was stored in the name string. It's because there was a space after Dennis. You can use the fgets function to read a line of string. And, you can use puts to display the string. The sizeof name results to Note: The gets function can also be to take input from the user. However, it is removed from the C standard. It's because gets allows you to input any length of characters.

Hence, there might be a buffer overflow. Strings can be passed to a function in a similar way as arrays. Learn more about passing arrays to a function. Similar like arrays, string names are "decayed" to pointers. Hence, you can use pointers to manipulate elements of the string.

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We recommended you to check C Arrays and Pointers before you check this example. Course Index Explore Programiz. Popular Tutorials Data Types in C. C for Loop. Arrays in C Programming. Pointers in C.

string array in c

Find roots of a quadratic equation. Print Pyramids and Patterns. Check prime number. Print the Fibonacci series. Reference Materials string. Start Learning C. Explore C Examples. Join our newsletter for the latest updates. This is required.That would be a string variable. C lacks a string variable type. It does, however, have character variables. Queue up enough of them and you have a string. Or, to put it in programming lingo, you have an array of character variables. The array is a big topic.

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Be open-minded about arrays and strings and soak in the goodness of Stuffing a String into a char Array. Line 5 creates an array of char variables. The array is a gizmo that lists a bunch of variables all in a row. The char array variable is named promptwhich is immediately followed by empty square brackets.

The array is assigned, via the equal sign, the text enclosed in double quotes. The printf statement in Line 7 displays the string stored in the prompt array. In Line 8, getchar pauses the program, anticipating the Enter key press. Exercise 1: Create a new project, ex, and type the source code from Stuffing a String into a char Array. Build and run the code.

Exercise 2 : Modify the source code from Stuffing a String into a char Array so that a single string variable holds two lines of text; for example:. The format looks like this:. In the preceding line, string is the name of the char array, and text is the string assigned to that array. You cannot reassign or change that value later by using a direct statement, such as. Changing a string is possible in C, but you need to know more about arrays, string functions, and especially pointers before you make the attempt.

Dan Gookin wrote the original For Dummies book in Now, with more than 11 million copies in print, his many books have been translated into 32 languages. Visit him at wambooli. How to Store Strings in C Programming.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

What is the correct way to do this? When you do it like this you will allocate an array of two pointers to const char.

string array in c

These pointers will then be set to the addresses of the static strings "blah" and "hmm". This will allocate two consecutive arrays of 14 char s each, after which the content of the static strings will be copied into them.

There are several ways to create an array of strings in C. If all the strings are going to be the same length or at least have the same maximum lengthyou simply declare a 2-d array of char and assign as necessary:.

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This assumes the size and number of strings in the initializer match up with your array dimensions. In this case, the contents of each string literal which is itself a zero-terminated array of char are copied to the memory allocated to strs.

The problem with this approach is the possibility of internal fragmentation; if you have 99 strings that are 5 characters or less, but 1 string that's 20 characters long, 99 strings are going to have at least 15 unused characters; that's a waste of space. Note that in this case, you've only allocated memory to hold the pointers to the strings; the memory for the strings themselves must be allocated elsewhere either as static arrays or by using malloc or calloc.

You can use the initializer list like the earlier example:. Instead of copying the contents of the string constants, you're simply storing the pointers to them. Note that string constants may not be writable; you can reassign the pointer, like so:. You can use malloc to dynamically allocate the buffer for each string and copy to that buffer:.

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Update: Thomas says strlcpy is the way to go. For a1 you will have to use strcpy better yet strncpy even when assigning string literals. The reason is that a2and a3 are arrays of pointers and you can make their elements i. This also brings us to the disadvantage of using a2 and a3 - since they point to static storage where string literals are stored the contents of which cannot be reliably changed viz. Or you can declare a struct type, that contains a character arry 1 stringthem create an array of the structs and thus a multi-element array.

One of the advantages of this over any other method is that this allows you to scan directly into the string without having to use strcpy. These strings are immutable read-onlyand thus in many environments use less overhead than dynamically building a string array. For example in small micro-controller projects, this syntax uses program memory rather than usually more precious ram memory. AVR-C is an example environment supporting this syntax, but so do most of the other ones.

If you don't want to keep track of number of strings in array and want to iterate over them, just add NULL string in the end:. See wikibooks to arrays and pointers. I was missing somehow more dynamic array of strings, where amount of strings could be varied depending on run-time selection, but otherwise strings should be fixed.

And there is extra Ansi to unicode conversion using A2T macro, but that might be optional for your case. Learn more. How do I create an array of strings in C? Ask Question. Asked 11 years, 3 months ago. Active 1 year, 1 month ago.

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Programming Interview: Array of pointers to String

I am trying to create an array of strings in C.